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Showing posts from August, 2012

Primary Division of Surveying

Introduction:
Surveying is an art of determination of the relative position of the points on above or below the surface of the earth by some direct or indirect linear and angular measurements.
Leveling is a branch of surveying in which we locate the points at some given elevation or determine the elevation of the given points.

Main objective of the surveying is to prepare the maps or plan of a given area. The term map is used when we have to prepare the horizontal projection of a relatively larger area on a paper sheet.
The term 'plan' is used when the area is relatively smaller.

Primary Division of Surveying
Earth is an ellipsoid. There is difference of about 43km between the diameter of the earth along the equatorial plane and that along the polar axis. When we draw a triangular traverse on a level surface  then the triangle formed is known as a spherical triangle and the angles are known as the spherical angles.
When we draw the chord of a 12km le…