5. Contours: Contours are the imaginary lines on the surface of the earth, which join the points of the same or constant elevations.
6. Temporary adjustments: Temporary adjustments of any surveying instrument are the adjustments of the instrument which are done at every instrument station after we change the location of the instrument.
7. Topography map: A topography map is prepared to know the topography of the area to be mapped, so it shows the horizontal as well as the vertical distances between two points in a map. You can interpret the hills, reservoirs, depressions, ridges, valleys, forests, roads, bridges and all the details using a topographic map. Topographic map is used in the early stages of planning the big projects like road construction, railways construction, canal construction, dam construction and almost any important construction project.
8. Tacheometer: Tacheometer is a surveying instrument used to find the horizontal and the vertical distances between the two points, by using the angular observations only. You don't need a chain or a tape if you have a tacheometer. It is similar to a Theodolite but fixed with a stadia diaphragm.