Minor Surveying Instruments


There are some instruments used for the rough surveys, they are not used for the precise surveys:

  •  Hand Level:
It is compact instrument used for locating contours, taking cross sections in reconnaissance surveys.
  • Clinometer:
It is a light compact instrument used for measuring vertical angles, finding out slope of the ground and for locating points on a given grade. There are three commonly used forms of clinometers:
 (i) Abney's level
(ii) Tangent Clinometer
 (iii) Ceylon Ghat Tracer

  • Box Sextant: 
It is a reflecting instrument capable of measuring up to 120 degrees with an accuracy of one minute. It is one of the most precise hand instrument.

  • Pantagraph: It is used to reduce or enlarge the given figure.

  • Planimeter: It is used to measure the area of the given figure.


Reference: surveying Vol-1,2, by Dr. B.C.Punmia, Kanetkar, and internet surfing

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