Monday, December 30, 2013

Surveying notes for GATE, PSUs - Part 5

Hello there,
How have you been? Here is 5th part of one liners for the preparation of the GATE and PSUs.
  • Error due to curvature and refraction can be neutralized by setting the level midway between the two stations.
  • Height of instrument method of levelling is quicker and less tedious for large numbers of intermediate sights.
  • The rise and fall method provides a check on the reduction of intermediate point levels.
  • If the staff is not held vertical at a levelling station, the reduced level calculated from the observation would be less than true R.L.
  • The difference between a level line and a horizontal line is that a level line is a curved line while horizontal line is a straight line.
  • The sensitivity of a bubble tube can be increase by increasing the diameter of the bubble tube.
  • With the rise in temperature sensitivity of a bubble tube decreases, because with rise in temperature the liquid expands and bubble gets smaller.
  • Refraction correction partially eliminates the curvature correction.
  • As applied to staff readings, the corrections for curvature and refraction are respectively "-" and "+".
  • The correction for refraction as applied to staff reading is +1/7[d^2/(2R)].
  • Sensitivity of a bubble tube is designated by radius of level tube.
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Solved Example-Distance of a Point from a Line, whose end Co-ordinates are given.

Hi, Problem: The X and Y co-ordinates(in meters) of station Shore are 246.87 and 659.46 respectively, and those for station Rock are 437...

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